Soldiers and civilians alike endured the privations of siege warfare for 47 days before the surrender of Pemberton’s forces on July 4, 1863. With the Mississippi River now firmly in Union hands, the Confederacy's fate was all but sealed.
|Hancock at Pickett's Charge. Painting by Thure de Thulstrup, 1887. (LOC)|
Vicksburg cut the Confederacy in two and greatly hindered the Confederates' logistics. Gettysburg ruined Confederate hopes for some sort of negotiated peace.